aAbrasives - Materials used for wearing away a surface by friction such as sandpaper, or steel wool.
Acetates - Organic solvents formed by combining various alcohols with acetic acid.
Acetic Acid - A colorless, corrosive liquid of pungent odor. It is sometimes known as ethanoic acid. It is widely used as a reagent, solvent and esterifier
Acetone - A fast evaporating, highly flammable solvent.
Acrylic - Synthetic resin similar to that used in transparent, glass-like plastics. Widely used as a latex and as a solvent-thinned coating (is often described as an acrylic lacquer). These are film-forming substances made by polymerizing a monomer such as ethyl acrylate. They are similar in performance to the vinyle resins except they show excellent ultraviolet resistance and maintain their flexibility through a wide range of conditions. Also obtainable as an emulsion and used extensively in exterior latex paints.
Acrylic Resins - Synthetic resins, made from derivatives of acrylic acid, of excellent color and clarity. Used in both emulsion and solvent-based paints.
Adhesion - The act or state of adhering. The sticking together of substances contact with each other as if they were glued. The property which makes a paint film stick to the surface. The degree of attachment between a coating film and the underlying material with which it is in contact. The latter may be another film of paint (intercoat adhesion) or any other material such as wook, metal, plaster, etc. (adhesion between a coating and substrate) Adhesion should not be confused with cohesion.
Airless spray - This system requires no air, as it uses hydraulic pressure. Atomization of the paint is achieved when the pressurized paint is forced through a small spray nozzle. Due to the high pressure, one of the main advantages is that paint materials do not need to be reduced near as much as in airspray, thereby resulting in better hiding and higher film build.
Alkyd resin - A synthetic resin, usually made with phthalic anhydride, glycerol and fatty acids from vegetable oils. It is basically an ester.
Alligatoring - A painted surface on which cracks, resembling the hide of an alligator, have formed. Common causes of this condition are the application of thick films which prevent the under surface from becoming thoroughly dry and hard, and from drying the paint in poorly ventilated rooms.
Ambient Temperature - Room temperature or temperature of surroundings.
Aqueous - Containing water.
Atomize - Break a stream into small particles.
bBenzene - A very light specific gravity petroleum distillate, less volatile than gasoline but more so than kerosene. It has low solvent power, and is highly flammable. It is often used as a lacquer diluent.
Binder - The non-volatile portion of a paint which binds the pigment particles together; e.g., oils, varnishes and proteins.
Bleeding - Migration of a dye or stain from stained wood or any undercoat into subsequent coats. This usually occurs as the result of solubility in the vehicle portion of the top coat. It can often be prevented or reduced by the application of an intermediate coat of shellac, aluminum, paint, or emulsion paint. For example, a white enamel applied over mahogany woodwork or over a brilliant red enamel will develop pink spots in a few weeks.
Blistering - A loosening of small surface areas, usually caused by applying paint to a surface containing excessive moisture. Blistering may also occur when moisture enters painted wood through some indirect source such as poor joints or careless carpentry work. It may also be caused by excessive heat, or sap (resin) trapped in the wood. In wall coverings, a bubble of entrapped air or a paste lump under the wallcovering.
Boxing - Mixing paint by pouring from one bucket to another several times to assure uniform consistency and smoothness.
Brush marks - Marks of the brush bristle that remains in the dried paint film.
Bubbling - A term used to describe the appearance of bubbles on the surface while the coating is being applied.
cCatalyst - A chemical term given to substances, which induce, alter or materially effect a chemical reaction. In the paint industry catalysts accelerate the cure of paint films. In both polyester and epoxy coatings, catalysts are used to cure the film.
Caulking compound - A semi-drying or slow-drying plastic, dough-like material somewhat more fluid than putty, which is used for filling larger cracks and for sealing around flashings and similar places. Unlike putty it is formulated to retain its flexibility. Usually made in two grades, gun-type and knife-type.
Chalking - The decomposition of a paint film by lesion into a loose powder of the film surface. While mild chalking is desirable, heavy chalking is not. It must be removed by vigorous brushing prior to repainting.
Coat - A coat is a uniform film of finishing material applied in one or more applications. Such additional applications must be applied before the lower film of finishing material has a chance to gry out in order to be considered a part of that coat.
ColorFast - Non fading.
Cool colors - Hues or colors in which blue predominates. The term "cool" is used because of the association with ice, water, and sky.
Corrosion - Oxidation; deterioration due to interaction with the environment. Destruction of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with it's environment.
Cracking - The splitting or breaking of a dry coating.
Creosote - A product made from coal tar and used a s wood preservative. It should not be used on wood if painting over it is contemplated at a later time.
Cure - The term indicating the toughening or hardening of a paint film as the result of time, oxidation or elevated temperatures, or all three.
dDew point - Temperature at which air becomes saturated with water and produces dew or moisture.
Diethyl Phthalate - A nitrocellulose solvent used as a plasticizer.
Drying time - Time required for an applied film of coating to reach the desired stage of cure, hardness, or nontackiness.
Durability - The life of the finishing material under actual wearing conditions.
eEggshell - Between semi-gloss and flat.
Elasticity- Property of a film which permits it to stretch and return to normal conditions without breaking during distortion.
Enamel - A special type of paint made with varnish or lacquer as a vehicle. It is usually high in gloss and pigmented with high hiding pigments only. It has a low pigment volume.
Epoxy paint - A paint based on an epoxy resin, e.g. 'epoxy/amine' or 'epoxy/polyamide'.
Epoxy resin - These film forming resins derive their name from a reactive grouping in the molecule. Films made from them are noted for their high chemical solvent resistance and excellent abrasion resistance. A resin derived from bisphenol. Used in varnishes and enamels similar to alkyds, and also in catalyzed coatings for industrial maintenance work..
fFailure - The term commonly used to describe the condition of a paint film at the end of it's "useful life". All paints must eventually fail. The method of failure and the condition of the surface for repainting are the important factors.
Feathering - Reducing the thickness of the edge of a dry paint film (e.g. the edge of a damaged area), by sanding or rubbing down, prior to repainting, or the tapering off the edges of a coat of wet paint by laying off with a comparatively dry brush.
Film - A layer or coat of material applied to a surface.
Finish coat - The last applied film of coating in a painting system.
Flaking - Lifting of the paint from the underlying surface in the form of flakes or scales.
Flashing - The non-uniform appearance on walls or other surfaces in which a coating dries with spotty differences in color or gloss, usually due to improper sealing of the porous surface.
Flat - A finish having no luster or gloss.
Galvanized iron - Sheet metal coated by dipping in hot zinc.
Galvanized steel - Steel plated in molten bath of zinc.
Gloss - a term used to express the shine, sheen or luster of a dried film. This refers to the reflection characteristics of a film, (usually measured a 60 to the surface by a reflection meter). Also, the degree to which a painted surface possesses the property of reflecting light in a mirrorlike manner (specular reflection).
Hairlines - Very narrow cracks in paint or varnish films.
Holidays - Areas that have been missed on one or more coats of paint, resulting in a lack of paint film thickness and an irregular appearance. Also called "vacations".
Hue - A term used to designate the name of a color.
Hydrous - Containing water.
iIron Oxide - Pigment available in theree forms; red, brown and yellw, and of high iron content. See ferric oxide.
jJoint tape - A special paper or paper-faced cotton tape used over joints between wallboard to conceal the joint and provide for a smooth surface for painting.
lLacquer Thinner - A term used to describe a solvent blend of ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and toluene.
Latex - A synthetic resin (e.g. polyvinyl acetate, styrene butadiene, acrylics), used as base for water emulsion paints. In latex paint, pigment is in suspension, whereas in rubber base paint the pigment is in solution.
Laying Off - The final light strokes of the brush during a painting operation.
Lead Free - Paint containing, by weight, less that .06% lead.
mMasking - Covering areas which are not to be painted.
Masking tape - Adhesive coated paper tape used to mask or protect parts of a surface not to be painted.
Matte Finish - Basically, flat.
Mildew - Fungus growth sometimes found on or under paint coatings in damp places. Usually black or grey in color. It"feeds" on paint and other materials, and it disfigures paint through discoloration.
Mildewcide - Substance poisonous to mildew; prevents or retards growth of mildew.
Mineral Spirits - A petroleum solvent used as a replacement for turpentine; Petroleum distillate, mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons.
nNonflammable - Incombustible. Will not burn.
oOrganic compound - Chemicals are based on carbon and hydrogen in combination with restricted number of other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, etc.
OSHA - The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor (US).
pPaint - A mixture or dispersion of pigments or powders in a liquid or vehicle. A general term referring to a pigmented liquid composition that is converted to an opaque, solid film after applicaton as a thin layer. When used in the general sense includes paints, enamels, varnishes, emulsions, bituminous coatings, and other organic coatings. Inorganic coatings which are applied in the same manner as paints are included in this category.
Paint Failure - The loss of usfulness of the paint coating.
Peeling - Detachment of a paint film from the underlying surface or under coating in ribbons or sheets, (relatively large pieces), generally accompanied by curling at the edges.
Pigment - The fine solid particles used in the preparation of paint and substantially insoluble in the vehicle.
Pin Hole - A minute hole in the paint film due to improper solvent release during drying.
Polymer - A high molecular weight material composed of a large number of repeating units of monomer linked together.
Polyurethane - this is a film forming substance produced when an isocyanate reacts with other substances to produce an organic compound known as a urethane. Developed in Germany and shows good chemical and excellent solvent resistance. Abrasion resistance is also outstanding. May be obtained as air drying, moisture-cured, or catalyzed types.
Primer - The first of two or more coats of paint, varnish or lacquer system. On steel, it was originally applied to improve adherence of the succeeding coat, but now frequently contains an inhibitor.
rRespirator - Safety breathing mask.
Rust - The coating of red or yellow oxides of iron produced when iron or steel is exposed to a humid atmosphere. Not to be confused with "white rust", a term loosely used to describe corrosion products of certain non-ferrous metals.
sSatin Finish - A dried film wich does not have a full luster but one resembling satin.
Sealer - A liquid composition to prevent excessive absorption of finish coats into porous surfaces; also a composition to prevent bleeding.
Semi-Gloss - This refers to the glossiness of a finsh and is between eggshell and high or full gloss.
Solvent - A liquid in which another substance may be dissolved.
Spackling Compound - A material used as a crack filler for preparing surfaces for painting.
Step Ladder Safety
Surface - An area which is to be coated or the character of the area. The kind of finish obtained after the finished work has been rubbed.
Terpolymer - Three monomers polymerized together.
Thinner - Volatile organic liquid used to modify consistency and other properties of paint, varnish and lacquer.
Tipping off - The brushing technique which involves the use of the tips of the bristles to smooth the applied finish.
Top Coat - The coating intended to be the last coat or finish coat in a coating system.